Source code for discopy.quantum.pennylane

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

Interface with PennyLane.


.. autosummary::
    :template: class.rst


.. admonition:: Functions

    .. autosummary::
        :template: function.rst



If `probabilities` is set to False, the output states of the PennyLane
circuit will be exactly equivalent to those of the DisCoPy circuit
(for the same parameters).

If `probabilities` is set to True, the output states of the PennyLane
circuit will be the probabilities of the output states, equivalent
to appending :class:`discopy.quantum.circuit.Measure` to all the
open wires in the DisCoPy circuit.

Once a :class:`PennyLaneCircuit` has been constructed, it
can be evaluated with :func:`.eval()`. If the circuit contains only
concrete parameters (i.e. no symbolic parameters), no arguments
should be passed to `eval()`. If the circuit contains symbolic
parameters, a list of the symbolic parameters and a list of their
associated weights should be passed to `eval()` as `symbols=` and

from __future__ import annotations

from itertools import product
import pennylane as qml
import sympy
import torch
from pytket import OpType
from typing import TYPE_CHECKING

from discopy.quantum.gates import Scalar

    from discopy.quantum import Circuit

OP_MAP = {
    OpType.X: qml.PauliX,
    OpType.Y: qml.PauliY,
    OpType.Z: qml.PauliZ,
    OpType.S: qml.S,
    OpType.Sdg: lambda wires: qml.S(wires=wires).inv(),
    OpType.T: qml.T,
    OpType.Tdg: lambda wires: qml.T(wires=wires).inv(),
    OpType.H: qml.Hadamard,
    OpType.Rx: qml.RX,
    OpType.Ry: qml.RY,
    OpType.Rz: qml.RZ,
    OpType.CX: qml.CNOT,
    OpType.CY: qml.CY,
    OpType.CZ: qml.CZ,
    OpType.CRx: qml.CRX,
    OpType.CRy: qml.CRY,
    OpType.CRz: qml.CRZ,
    OpType.CU1: lambda a, wires: qml.ctrl(qml.U1(a, wires=wires[1]),
    OpType.SWAP: qml.SWAP,
    OpType.noop: qml.Identity,

[docs]def tk_op_to_pennylane(tk_op): """ Extract the operation, parameters and wires from a pytket :class:`Op`, and return the corresponding PennyLane operation. Parameters ---------- tk_op : :class:`pytket.circuit.Op` The pytket :class:`Op` to convert. Returns ------- :class:`qml.operation.Operation` The PennyLane operation equivalent to the input pytket Op. list of (:class:`torch.FloatTensor` or :class:`sympy.core.symbol.Symbol`) The parameters of the operation. list of :class:`sympy.core.symbol.Symbol` The free symbols in the parameters of the operation. list of int The wires/qubits to apply the operation to. """ wires = [x.index[0] for x in tk_op.qubits] params = tk_op.op.params symbols = set() remapped_params = [] for param in params: # scale rotation from [0, 2) to [0, 1), (rescale to [0, 2pi) later) param /= 2 if not isinstance(param, sympy.Expr): param = torch.tensor(param) else: symbols.update(param.free_symbols) remapped_params.append(param) return OP_MAP[tk_op.op.type], remapped_params, symbols, wires
[docs]def extract_ops_from_tk(tk_circ): """ Extract the operations, and corresponding parameters and wires, from a pytket Circuit. Return these as lists to use in constructing PennyLane circuit. Parameters ---------- tk_circ : :class:`` The pytket circuit to extract the operations from. Returns ------- list of :class:`qml.operation.Operation` The PennyLane operations extracted from the pytket circuit. list of list of (:class:`torch.FloatTensor` or :class:`sympy.core.symbol.Symbol`) The corresponding parameters of the operations. list of list of int The corresponding wires of the operations. set of :class:`sympy.core.symbol.Symbol` The free symbols in the parameters of the tket circuit. """ op_list, params_list, wires_list = [], [], [] symbols_set = set() for op in tk_circ.__iter__(): if op.op.type != OpType.Measure: op, params, symbols, wires = tk_op_to_pennylane(op) op_list.append(op) params_list.append(params) wires_list.append(wires) symbols_set.update(symbols) return op_list, params_list, wires_list, symbols_set
[docs]def get_post_selection_dict(tk_circ): """ Return post-selections based on qubit indices. Parameters ---------- tk_circ : :class:`` The pytket circuit to extract the post-selections from. Returns ------- dict of int A mapping from qubit indices to pytket classical indices. """ q_post_sels = {} for q, c in tk_circ.qubit_to_bit_map.items(): q_post_sels[q.index[0]] = tk_circ.post_selection[c.index[0]] return q_post_sels
[docs]def to_pennylane(disco_circuit: Circuit, probabilities=False, backend_config=None, diff_method="best"): """ Return a PennyLaneCircuit equivalent to the input DisCoPy circuit. `probabilties` determines whether the PennyLaneCircuit returns states (as in DisCoPy), or probabilties (to be more compatible with automatic differentiation in PennyLane). Parameters ---------- disco_circuit : :class:`discopy.quantum.circuit.Circuit` The DisCoPy circuit to convert to PennyLane. probabilities : bool, default: False Determines whether the PennyLane circuit outputs states or un-normalized probabilities. Probabilities can be used with more PennyLane backpropagation methods. backend_config : dict, default: None A dictionary of PennyLane backend configration options, including the provider (e.g. IBM or Honeywell), the device, the number of shots, etc. See the `PennyLane plugin documentation <>`_ for more details. diff_method : str, default: "best" The differentiation method to use to obtain gradients for the PennyLane circuit. Some gradient methods are only compatible with simulated circuits. See the `PennyLane documentation <>`_ for more details. Returns ------- :class:`PennyLaneCircuit` The PennyLane circuit equivalent to the input DisCoPy circuit. """ if disco_circuit.is_mixed: raise ValueError('Only pure quantum circuits are currently ' 'supported.') tk_circ = disco_circuit.to_tk() op_list, params_list, wires_list, symbols_set = \ extract_ops_from_tk(tk_circ) post_selection = get_post_selection_dict(tk_circ) scalar = 1 for box in disco_circuit.boxes: if isinstance(box, Scalar): scalar *= box.array return PennyLaneCircuit(op_list, list(symbols_set), params_list, wires_list, probabilities, post_selection, scalar, tk_circ.n_qubits, backend_config, diff_method)
STATE_BACKENDS = ['default.qubit', 'lightning.qubit', 'qiskit.aer'] STATE_DEVICES = ['aer_simulator_statevector', 'statevector_simulator']
[docs]class PennyLaneCircuit: """ Implement a pennylane circuit with post-selection. """ def __init__(self, ops, symbols, params, wires, probabilities, post_selection, scale, n_qubits, backend_config, diff_method): self._ops = ops self._symbols = symbols self._params = params self._wires = wires self._probabilities = probabilities self._post_selection = post_selection self._scale = scale self._n_qubits = n_qubits self._backend_config = backend_config self.diff_method = diff_method self._contains_sympy = self.contains_sympy() if self._contains_sympy: self._concrete_params = None else: self._concrete_params = params self.initialise_device_and_circuit() self._valid_states = self.get_valid_states()
[docs] def get_device(self, backend_config): """ Return a PennyLane device with the specified backend configuration. """ if backend_config is None: backend = 'default.qubit' backend_config = {} else: backend = backend_config.pop('backend') if backend == 'honeywell.hqs': try: backend_config['machine'] = backend_config.pop('device') except KeyError: raise ValueError('When using the honeywell.hqs provider, ' 'a device must be specified.') elif 'device' in backend_config: backend_config['backend'] = backend_config.pop('device') if not self._probabilities: if backend not in STATE_BACKENDS: raise ValueError(f'The {backend} backend is not ' 'compatible with state outputs.') elif ('backend' in backend_config and backend_config['backend'] not in STATE_DEVICES): raise ValueError(f'The {backend_config["backend"]} ' 'device is not compatible with state ' 'outputs.') return qml.device(backend, wires=self._n_qubits, **backend_config)
[docs] def initialise_device_and_circuit(self): """ Initialise the PennyLane device and circuit when instantiating the PennyLaneCirucit, or loading from disk. """ self._device = self.get_device(None if self._backend_config is None else {**self._backend_config}) self._circuit = self.make_circuit()
[docs] def contains_sympy(self): """ Determine if the circuit parameters are concrete or contain SymPy symbols. Returns ------- bool Whether the circuit parameters contain SymPy symbols. """ return any(isinstance(expr, sympy.Expr) for expr_list in self._params for expr in expr_list)
[docs] def initialise_concrete_params(self, symbol_weight_map): """ Given concrete values for each of the SymPy symbols, substitute the symbols for the values to obtain concrete parameters, via the `param_substitution` method. """ if self._contains_sympy: weights = [symbol_weight_map[symbol] for symbol in self._symbols] self._concrete_params = self.param_substitution(weights)
[docs] def draw(self): """ Print a string representation of the circuit similar to `qml.draw`, but including post-selection. Parameters ---------- symbols : list of :class:`sympy.core.symbol.Symbol`, default: None The symbols from the original DisCoPy circuit. weights : list of :class:`torch.FloatTensor`, default: None The weights to substitute for the symbols. """ if self._concrete_params is None: raise ValueError('Cannot draw circuit with symbolic parameters. ' 'Initialise concrete parameters first.') wires = (qml.draw(self._circuit) (self._concrete_params).split("\n")) for k, v in self._post_selection.items(): wires[k] = wires[k].split("┤")[0] + "┤" + str(v) + ">" print("\n".join(wires))
[docs] def get_valid_states(self): """ Determine which of the output states of the circuit are compatible with the post-selections. Returns ------- list of int The indices of the circuit output that are compatible with the post-selections. """ keep_indices = [] fixed = ['0' if self._post_selection.get(i, 0) == 0 else '1' for i in range(self._n_qubits)] open_wires = set(range(self._n_qubits)) - self._post_selection.keys() permutations = [''.join(s) for s in product('01', repeat=len(open_wires))] for perm in permutations: new = fixed.copy() for i, open in enumerate(open_wires): new[open] = perm[i] keep_indices.append(int(''.join(new), 2)) return keep_indices
[docs] def make_circuit(self): """ Construct the :class:`qml.Qnode`, a circuit that can be used with autograd to construct hybrid models. Returns ------- :class:`qml.Qnode` A Pennylane circuit without post-selection. """ @qml.qnode(self._device, interface="torch", diff_method=self.diff_method) def circuit(circ_params): for op, params, wires in zip(self._ops, circ_params, self._wires): op(*[2 * torch.pi * p for p in params], wires=wires) if self._probabilities: return qml.probs(wires=range(self._n_qubits)) else: return qml.state() return circuit
[docs] def post_selected_circuit(self, params): """ Run the circuit with the given parameters and return the post-selected output. Parameters ---------- params : :class:`torch.FloatTensor` The concrete parameters for the gates in the circuit. Returns ------- :class:`torch.Tensor` The post-selected output of the circuit. """ states = self._circuit(params) open_wires = self._n_qubits - len(self._post_selection) post_selected_states = states[self._valid_states] post_selected_states *= (self._scale ** 2 if self._probabilities else self._scale) if post_selected_states.shape[0] == 1: return post_selected_states else: return torch.reshape(post_selected_states, (2,) * open_wires)
[docs] def param_substitution(self, weights): """ Substitute symbolic parameters (SymPy symbols) with floats. Parameters ---------- weights : list of :class:`torch.FloatTensor` The weights to substitute for the symbols. Returns ------- :class:`torch.FloatTensor` The concrete (non-symbolic) parameters for the circuit. """ concrete_params = [] for expr_list in self._params: concrete_list = [] for expr in expr_list: if isinstance(expr, sympy.Expr): f_expr = sympy.lambdify([self._symbols], expr) expr = f_expr(weights) concrete_list.append(expr) concrete_params.append(concrete_list) return concrete_params
[docs] def eval(self): """ Evaluate the circuit. The symbols should be those from the original DisCoPy diagram, which will be substituted for the concrete parameters in weights. Parameters ---------- symbols : list of :class:`sympy.core.symbol.Symbol`, default: None The symbols from the original DisCoPy circuit. weights : list of :class:`torch.FloatTensor`, default: None The weights to substitute for the symbols. Returns ------- :class:`torch.Tensor` The post-selected output of the circuit. """ if self._concrete_params is None: raise ValueError('Initialise concrete parameters first.') return self.post_selected_circuit(self._concrete_params)